Jer. 31:31-32 Indeed, days are coming, declares Jehovah, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by their hand to bring them out from the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was their Husband, declares Jehovah.
The Bible shows us that the desire of God’s heart is to come into man as life and to be one with man. God has always liked to contact man, and in this contact He has made several covenants with man….In the Bible God made eight covenants with man, but He counts only two covenants: the covenant made with Israel through Moses and the new covenant, the covenant of life, which is considered the second covenant (Heb. 8:7). All the other covenants—the covenants with the created man, with the fallen man, with Noah, with Abraham, with Israel in the land of Moab, and with David—are considered by God as side covenants….If we study all these covenants thoroughly, we will see that God cares for only one covenant, the new covenant of life. (Life-study of Jeremiah, pp. 255-256)
The content of the new covenant is the Triune God, who has been processed and consummated to become everything to God’s chosen people. This new covenant was promised to Israel in Jeremiah 31:31-34 (cf. Heb. 8:8-13), and it was absolutely, thoroughly, and completely fulfilled by the Lord Jesus when He established His table (Matt. 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-26). In instituting the table, the Lord Jesus made a covenant with the New Testament believers.
The most important part of the book of Jeremiah is the portion on the new covenant. Since Jeremiah spoke regarding the new covenant, this book, in a sense, is more important than the writings of Moses, which do not say anything about the new covenant. Although Moses prophesied very much concerning Christ, the covenant God made with Israel through him had nothing to do with Jesus Christ.
Whereas Christ’s ministry is a ministry of justification, Moses’ ministry was a ministry of condemnation (2 Cor. 3:9a). Therefore, in God’s economy Moses’ ministry is not the central line. However, without the old covenant of the law made through Moses, Jeremiah could not have exposed Israel to the uttermost….Here we see that the function of the law, which is something on the negative side, is to expose our fallen condition and situation. This helps us turn to the source, to the fountain of living waters, which in the New Testament is Christ as the embodiment of God. (Life-study of Jeremiah, pp. 256-257)
Christ enacted the new covenant (which became the new testament—the will) with His blood for the redemption of the transgressions of God’s people (Matt. 26:28; Heb. 9:15)….He died for us according to God’s righteous requirements, and the blood He shed through that death was used to form a covenant. Even He Himself said that the cup of the Lord’s table was a symbol of the new covenant in His blood (1 Cor. 11:25). He redeemed us back to God and qualified us to inherit everything of God. This is the new covenant. Actually, this new covenant is Christ Himself. In resurrection Christ became the bequests of the new testament and the Mediator, the Executor, to execute the new testament (Heb. 9:15-17). This implies that Christ is the covenant. When God gave us the Bible as a will, this meant that God gave us Christ. Christ is the centrality and universality as the reality of the new testament. When Christ is given, that means He is the covenant. We not only have the items of the new testament in our mind, but we also have the reality of this covenant, who is Christ, in our spirit….He is the covenant of God given to us, the reality of all that God is and of all that God has given us. (Life-study of Isaiah, pp. 338-339)
Further Reading: Life-study of Jeremiah, msg. 39; Life-study of Isaiah, msg. 46